A/B testing is common practice and it can be a powerful optimization strategy when it’s used properly. We’ve written on it extensively. Plus, the Internet is full of “How We Increased Conversions by 1,000% with 1 Simple Change” style articles.
Unfortunately, there are experimentation flaws associated with A/B testing as well. Understanding those flaws and their implications is key to designing better, smarter A/B test variations.
Where A/B Tests Are Going Wrong
Most flaws fall within one of these three categories…
- The variation doesn’t address actual causes. Through qualitative and quantitative conversion research, you’ve found some issues with your site. For example, you know too few visitors are submitting your lead gen form. But the variation you create assumes the wrong cause of the issue. For example, you assume it’s too many required fields when really it’s a technical error.
- The variation is based on a hunch. A/B testing will tell you which variation is better, but if those variations are based exclusively on internal opinion and guesses, you’re missing out. The best possible variation might not be present yet.
- The implementation is poor. Each variation is merely an implementation of a hypothesis. Who says it’s the hypothesis that’s wrong and not just that particular implementation? Often, you’ll need to try multiple implementations to get it right.
Failure to identify and mitigate these flaws will result in simply throwing A/B test ideas at the wall and hoping something eventually sticks.
Stop Throwing Ideas at the Wall
Of course, throwing ideas at the wall is never a smart strategy, but that’s especially true for A/B test ideas. Here’s why…
- Traffic is a scarce resource. The sample size you need to run a meaningful A/B test will surprise you. You don’t have traffic to waste on flawed A/B test ideas.
- User abandonment does happen. If you’re constantly running flawed variations, your visitors are being served a less-than-optimal experience. While you’re waiting around hoping you get lucky, your visitors are getting more and more annoyed. Eventually, they will call it quits and leave.
- Time is a scarce resource. Your annual test capacity will surprise you. You can only run so many tests per year. You don’t have time to waste on flawed A/B test ideas, especially if you rely on designers and developers to assist you.
The best way to identify and mitigate these flaws is via UX research. UX research will help you better understand the causes of conversion issues and prioritize hypotheses. The result? Smarter A/B tests, less wasted traffic, less wasted time, more revenue.
UX Research Methods That Can Make You a Smarter Optimizer
First, it’s important to understand the definition of UX, which Sean Ellis of GrowthHackers.com explains well…
Researching how visitors experience your site, what their motivations are and what problems arise will help inform your optimization efforts. It’s all about understanding the expectation-reality gap, what causes it and what might help close it.
While there are many different UX research methods out there, there are a few that are particularly helpful for optimizers.
1. Investigating Intent and Points of Friction
As mentioned above, the expectation-reality gap is where your research will be focused. To understand the gap, you need to research visitor intent (expectation) and identify the various points of friction (reality).
Start by researching visitor intent and combining that with business intent. Often, as Sean explains, optimizers focus on goals and requirements when designing variations. In reality, variations should be designed based on intent…
After you fully understand your visitors’ intentions and their objectives, and how they relate to your own, you can move on to friction. That is, exploring the answers to questions like…
- Which doubts and hesitations did you have before joining?
- Which questions did you have, but couldn’t find answers to?
- What made you not complete the purchase today?
- Is there anything holding you back from completing a purchase?
- What made you almost not buy from us?
- Were you able to complete your tasks on this website today?
How can you conduct this type of research? Primarily through customer and on-site surveys, which you can read about extensively in How To Use On-Site Surveys to Increase Conversions and Survey Design 101: Choosing Survey Response Scales.
You can also turn to reviewing live chat logs and talking with your customer support reps. Finally, you try customer interviews. Depending on your objectives, you might want to interview new customers, transitioning out customers, repeat buyers, etc.
2. Getting to the Root of the Issues
To start, get a pulse on your usability with a benchmark usability study. If you’ve never conducted a benchmark usability study before, Nadyne Richmond, senior manager of UX at Genentech, shares her process…
Choose tasks that are core to the site / application.
Use metrics such as time on task, success rate / failure rate, number of user errors, number of system errors, satisfaction rating.
Have the user simply perform the tasks, not think out loud. Ask them to read the tasks out loud and verbally confirm when they are finished.
Ensure participants are part of your target audience. If you use personas, recruit an even mix.
Since this is primarily a quantitative study, you’ll need a larger number of participants. Calculate the sample size ahead of time based on the number of tasks, the number of personas, etc.
Why is this important? Well, as Scott Berkun notes, a surprising number of visitors will fail to complete tasks that optimizers consider “core”…
It’s important to understand how the variations you’re creating to improve UX and conversions are actually impacting UX, which is why it’s advisable to spend the time on the benchmark usability study. Generally, as UX improves, your conversion rates will too.
Remember that for every core task, you should set a goal. Here’s an example from Scott…
Initially, your goals will be relatively arbitrary unless you benchmark your competitors’ usability as well. As time goes on, you simply set realistic improvement goals.
When reporting the results of your benchmark usability study, start with the goals and how many people were able to achieve those goals. Here’s a visual example from Scott…
Once you have a benchmark, you can start exploring specific UX issues, their causes and your resulting hypotheses. The best way to do that is through user testing, which can be either moderated or unmoderated.
Jerry Cao of UXPin summed up the difference perfectly…
- Moderated user testing is recommended during early stages of development, for advanced or complicated sites / products, and for products with strict security concerns.
- Otherwise, unmoderated user testing saves time by allowing you to test hundreds of participants, allows for more natural product usage (due to environment), and saves money by cutting equipment and moderator costs.
Unmoderated user testing is growing in popularity thanks to tools like UserTesting, but be aware that leading questions that pollute data are still a problem, even without a moderator present…
You also have heat maps, click maps and scroll maps at your disposal to better understand issues and ensure you’re not designing variations for fictional causes.
3. Testing Your Findability
As Linn Vizard of Bridgeable explains, clear information architecture (IA) is key to good navigation, which is key to conversions. After all, if visitors can’t navigate your site to find what they’re looking for, they probably won’t convert.
When optimizing your navigation, focus on keeping it simple by reducing options where possible, using clear labels, creating enough contrast between the site and the navigation, and using clear “you are here” indicators.
As Linn explains, you’ll want to focus on optimizing for those tried and true principles instead of going for a radical change…
Shay Ben-Barak of User eXperience Design conducted an expert to see just how important prototypes are to visitor performance…
On one side, you have the standard dial pad (read left to right). On the other, the numbers are rearranged (read up to down). How much harder do you think it was for people to dial a 10 digit telephone number they know off by heart on the rearranged dial pad?
Well, here are the results…
As Shay explains, patterns and prototypes are difficult to change…
So, before you start A/B testing anything related to IA, be sure that findability is truly an issue and not another UX factor.
Using Tree Tests to Measure Findability
Tree tests make it possible to measure findability on your site. Jerry explains how they can be used to measure the effectiveness of your IA…
Jeff Sauro of MeasuringU does a great job of explaining why you would want to run a tree test as an optimizer, so I won’t reiterate…
So, run a tree test to find out if your current links, labels and hierarchies are performing well before you start experimenting.
When you have a new variation that addresses IA issues, run the tree test again to see if the variation improves findability. If not, don’t bother running the A/B test. Go back to the drawing board and come up with a new hypothesis.
Jeff wrote a detailed article on how to conduct tree tests, which you can read here.
4. Conducting Quality Assurance
Conducting proper quality assurance on all variations is vital. Failure to do so can seriously pollute your data, leaving you with false conclusions about what works and what doesn’t.
For example, you might assume your hypothesis was incorrect, when really it would’ve increased conversions had their not been a technical error.
Take the time to conduct cross-browser, cross-device testing and speed analysis on your site now. Then, do the same for every variation you test.
We’ve written about this extensively in the “Technical Analysis” section of our Conversion Optimization Guide. I definitely suggest taking the 5 minutes to read through it.
When optimizers throw ideas at the wall and hope something sticks, they end up with flawed variations…
- Variations that don’t address actual causes of lower conversions.
- Variations that are created based on a guess.
- Variations that are implemented poorly.
The result is lost time, traffic and money. To mitigate this issue, you can…
- Use customer surveys and on-site surveys to identify intent and points of friction.
- Conduct a benchmark usability study to understand how your variations impact UX (and thus, conversions).
- Use moderated or unmoderated user testing to explore specific UX issues and their true causes.
- Navigation and IA are closely related. Focus on mastering the tried and true navigation principles. Then, conduct tree tests to measure the effectiveness of your IA (and how your variations impact IA).
- Conduct quality assurance, including cross-browser testing, cross-device testing and speed analysis.